The western australian viticulture industry biosecurity plan was coordinated by the department of primary industries and regional development and developed through a partnership approach using government and industry resources and expertise. The genus is of economic importance on grape, strawberry, hops and a few other crops. Vectors of plant viruses university of california, davis. Dagger nematodes are retrieved from soil samples using the baermann funnel methods oeppeppo 2009, 20, and sugar floatation method lawrence and zehr 1978 among others. A very rare malformation affecting the female genital system. Articles are characterized by their novelty, innovativeness, and the hypothesisdriven nature of their. Plant hormones in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses. Applied soil ecology vol 129, pages 1150 august 2018. Both ring and dagger nematodes feed from outside the roots ectoparasites, but can reach the vascular tissues with their long stylet.
Enherbement integral sous le rang et ou en inter rang. Resistance to the dagger nematode xiphinema index has been an important objective in grape rootstock breeding programs. The virus spreads through propagation with virusinfected stock and by the feeding of. The new species is characterized by a long female body 1,830 to 2,109. We do not use these to store personal information about you. Transmission of a virus to strawberry plants by a nematode. Hewitt departments of plant nematology and plant pathology, university of california, davis, calif.
Unfortunately, this book cant be printed from the openbook. Xiphinema index can cause yield reduction in some varieties but is more important for its transmission of grapevine fanleaf virus causal agent of grapevine fanleaf degeneration disease. The plants are inspected at the place of production or the production site during the growing season, and the growing medium and the underground parts of the plants are examined by an appropriate nematological te st and found to be free from california dagger nematode xiphinema index. Description of a new dagger nematode, xiphinema barooghii. Uc cooperative extension 3 aviation boulevard suite 109 santa rosa, ca 954032894 707 5652621. Xiphinema index xiphinoverview eppo global database. Pdf distribution and morphometrical characterization of. Transmission of a virus to strawberry plants by a nematode xiphinema sp. The ectoparasitic dagger nematodes xiphinema index and xiphinema diversicaudatum, often at low numbers in the soil, are vectors of grapevine nepoviruses, which cause huge agronomical problems for the vineyard industry.
The female has one or two ovaries that are typically paired. A first record of tylenchulus semipenetrans and males of xiphinema index in vineyards in northeastern victoria a. Local and systemic mycorrhizainduced protection against the ectoparasitic nematode xiphinema index involves priming of defence gene responses in grapevine. Measurements were made on specimens fixed in taf and processed to glycerin following the method of. Studies on xiphinema americanum sensu lato with descriptions of fifteen new species nematoda. Fanleaf disease of grapevines was found in california 10 years ago hewitt, 1950 and the soilborne nature of the virus causing it shown 6 years later hewitt, 1956. Local and systemic mycorrhizainduced protection against. Xiphinema index is a migratory ectoparasite that primarily feeds on the root tips of grapes vitis vinifera. Xiphinema is a genus of ectoparasitic root nematodes commonly known as dagger nematodes. To identify enzymes and metabolites in the rhizobacteria filtrates that have a nematicidal effect on xiphinema index and perform molecular characterization of the strains evaluated methods and results. Several species are associated with this problem, the most important being the ectoparasite xiphinema index and the endoparasite meloidogyne ethiopica. The sensitivity of acetylcholinesterases ache isolated from the plantparasitic nematodes meloidogyne arenaria, m.
A series of four bacteria selected for their nematicidal potential were considered for in vitro, biochemical and molecular studies. Xiphinema index and its relationship to grapevines. Among the species attacking crops, the dagger nematode xiphinema index has a high economic impact in vineyards worldwide. The ache from plantparasitic nematode species were more sensitive to carbamate inhibitors than was ache from c. If you need to print pages from this book, we recommend downloading it as a pdf. Molecular confirmation of xiphinema italiae meyl, 1953. The primary objective of this study was to determine the genetic structure of x. Local and systemic mycorrhizainduced protection against the ectoparasitic nematode xiphinema index involves priming of defence gene responses in grapevine zhipeng hao, leon fayolle, diederik van tuinen, odile chatagnier, xiaolin li.
This nematode not only causes severe feeding damage to the root system, but it also vectors grapevine fanleaf virus gflv, the causal agent of fanleaf degeneration and one of the most severe viral diseases of grape. Exoenzymes and metabolites related to the nematicidal. This work has studied for the first time the structure and diversity of plantparasitic nematodes ppns infesting olive orchard soils in a wideregion in spain that included 92 locations. The new species belongs to morphospecies group 6 of the polytomous key prepared by loof and luc, 1990. Sensitive and reliable detection of grapevine fanleaf virus in a single xiphinema index nematode vector. The host range, life cycle in the mediterranean continental climate and its relationships with grapevine fanleaf nepovirus are also reported. Introduction control of plantparasitic nematodes the.
Of all examined vineyards, xiphinema index thorne and allen, 1950 was present in 8. Harris 1 australian plant pathology society newsletter volume 6, pages 1 2 1977 cite this article. Nematode samplings, extraction, and morphological study. Rhizobacteria associated to vitis vinifera and their. Agroecological characterization of xiphinema index in. Incidence of meloidogyne incognita and development of resistant soybean germplasm in illinois. Nov 15, 2007 resistance to the dagger nematode xiphinema index has been an important objective in grape rootstock breeding programs.
Xiphinema index is especially important because of its abifity to transmit grapevine fanleaf virus when feeding on grapevine roots. The ectoparasitic dagger nematode xiphinema index, vector of grapevine fanleaf virus gflv, provokes gall formation and can cause severe damage to the root system of grapevines. The body of a female is around 3 mm long, and the odontostyle is approximately 126 um long. Exoenzymes and metabolites related to the nematicidal effect. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction identification of single individuals of the longidorid nematodes xiphinema index x. Introduction to nematodes symptoms caused by nematodes mechanism of nematode injury to. Soil properties and olive cultivar determine the structure. Distribution and morphometrical characterization of xiphinema pachtaicum, x. Interrelationship between nematodes and other plant pathogens 5. The search for new pest and disease control methods based on bioantagonist microorganisms is an important. The individuals appear to be attracted to young, growing roots, where they feed by puncturing several successive layers of cells and extracting cytoplasm. There is a thick cuticle with thin striations across the body. Dp 11 diagnostic protocols for regulated pests dp 112 international plant protection convention 1. Phylogeography of the soilborne vector nematode xiphinema.
The most important representative of this group is bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the pine wood nematode, present in asia and america and recently discovered in europe. Mapping the dagger nematode, xiphinema index, resistance gene. It aims at determining which agronomical or environmental factors associated to the olive orchards are the main drivers of the ppns community structure and diversity. The specific transmission of grapevine fanleaf virus by its nematode vector xiphinema. Plantparasitic nematode acetylcholinesterase inhibition by. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. They can be easily recognized by their long bodies and stylets which are long enough to reach the vascular tissue of plants. The agroecological characteristics of xiphinema index were determined by studying its spatial and temporal distribution in different environmental conditions in spain.
Western australian viticulture industry biosecurity plan. First report and molecular characterization of the dagger nematode, xiphinema oxycaudatum nematoda, dorylaimidae from south africa. Volume 63 issue 10 journal of experimental botany oxford. Hundreds of females and two males from soil about the roots of fig, ficus carica, collected near planada, california. This virusnematode complex causes fanleaf degeneration, which is considered to be one of the most severe viral diseases of grape. Distribution of xiphinema americanum and related species in.1271 1428 1058 1184 1631 1424 1049 809 834 321 410 875 1273 944 223 989 1376 934 45 991 1631 2 1299 1103 76 564 899 264 997 769 326 176 432 628